JavaScript is one of the most popular scripting languages ever developed, which supports object-oriented and prototype-based programming styles. It is an amazing scripting language which not only handles client-side programming, it is also used to perform server-side functions as well. In simple terms, we can call JavaScript ‘The language of the Web World’.

JavaScript development services is massively popular amongst the developers across the world and it holds the position of a Market Leader. As per W3techs.com a whopping 96.7 of all websites in the World, use JavaScript for their client end programming.

Stackoverflow conducted an annual Developer survey 2020, where JavaScript emerged as the most famous programming language, for consecutive 8 years. An overwhelming 67.7% developers choose JavaScript and the biggest reason for its immense popularity is its versatile nature, as it offers a non-conventional ability to program both frontend and backend web components along with Testing applications as well.

JavaScript emerged as the most famous programming language

Source : Stackoverflow

 

JavaScript enables developers to make not only the dynamic web pages, it offers the ability to implement custom codes to make the web pages interactive and immersive experience for the end-user. It offers the capability to use cross-platform runtime engines to write server-side programs. It has a platform where developers can combine JavaScript with CSS3 and HTML5 to develop web pages that work on all the available browsers, different platforms, and a variety of mobile and non-mobile devices.

What is a JavaScript Framework?

In layman terms, a framework is a structure underlying a software system, which provides the generic functionality, and top of that it offers the flexibility to make changes by additional developer-written code, to address the end-users’ requirements and specifications.

If we talk about JavaScript Framework, then it’s a group of JavaScript Code Binaries, which provides Developers an ability to use pre-written JavaScript code to use usual programming features and functions, and top of that it helps developers to make custom changes in existing binaries to create powerful and highly dynamic frontend and backend web applications.

JavaScript Frameworks are highly adaptable for web development and mobile application development. JavaScript frameworks also enable the programmer to develop an application and make it responsive to the widest possible variety of devices, and this is the biggest reason of JavaScript Framework’s ever-increasing popularity among the Developer community.

 

Which JavaScript Framework to choose for Web and Application Development?

In the past decade, we have seen the emergence of new Technology trends which led to the advent of multiple JavaScript Frameworks to address the programming requirements of these new trends. We have seen that many new JavaScript frameworks entered the market with full galore but at the same time few frameworks were died a slow death due to their non-competitiveness.

We have several renowned JavaScript frameworks available and each one has its own pros and cons. Though we are in the opinion that it’s a slightly difficult decision to choose the right JavaScript framework for your organization to cater the requirements of Business and Clients, however, we have tried to put the Top 10 JavaScript Frameworks, which can be used for Frontend development, Backend development and even for Testing.

We will provide a brief introduction of these Frameworks, along with their functional advantages, a disadvantage from a developer’s perspective, which may help you to choose the right Framework.

 

Front End JavaScript Frameworks

1. React JS

React JS development company

 

It is one of the most popular open-source JavaScript libraries, which is used to create the front-end user interfaces. Obviously, It is not a full-fledged framework like its rivals; however, it fulfills all the application development requirements. It was developed by Facebook in 2011 and it became open source in 2013. Initially, it used to be known as “FaxJS” and Facebook implement it to rework its Newsfeed feature. React JS development indeed the most prominent technology disruptors as far as web and mobile application development is concerned.

It introduced a functional and component-based programming method to create highly interactive and immersive user interfaces for small web page applications along with complex web and mobile applications. React offers an amazing rendering capability by using ‘Virtual DOM’ which renders only active components, rather than rendering the entire webpage, in the process, it enhances the rendering speed manifold. It also offers the usage of JSX syntax rather than using conventional JavaScript syntax, which provides the traditional JavaScript features along with additional capabilities of developing React ‘Elements’ which make a Developer’s wok quite easy, while working on App and Web interfaces.

 

Features of React.js

Virtual DOM:

It’s a pathbreaking element of React.js, which provides a non-conventional and highly effective way of updating the view in a web application. Whenever an underlying data changes, it creates a new Virtual DOM element of the user interface. It’s a fact that rendering the Virtual DOM is always faster than rendering the user interface in the browser DOM, hence it increases the speed of rendering manifold.

JSX:

It’s a markup HTML/XML type of syntax, which is indeed an extension of JavaScript and looks quite like the traditional HTML, which helps developers to program the React components quite easily. In other terms, we can say that JSX enables developers to put HTML into JavaScript, which was not possible otherwise.

Declarative and Component-based approach:

It offers a Declarative approach, which makes code easily readable and quite easy to debug and re-process, which helps developers update and render the only necessary components whenever there is any change in the Data. React divides the entire webpage into several self-contained modules which are known as ‘Components’. These components are used to define the Interactive and Visual elements of the end User interface. Its component-based mechanism helps Developers to create and manage the user interface in a better way.

Event handling:

React offers a fully-fledged W3C object model event system, which provides a cross-browser interface to an event, which enhances the handling of even for the non-compatible events. React events are named using the Camel Case, rather than the usual lowercase method. Developers can pass a function as an event handler rather than a String.

Code stability and Less prone to errors :

It offers Unidirectional directional data flow architecture which gives it an edge over the Angular, which adopts 2-directional data binding process. This architecture offers the capability of making changes in the child elements without affecting the parent element. It makes the code less prone to error and enhances stability as well.

SEO friendly:

React is unarguably the most SEO friendly frameworks currently available in the market. It enables developers to design web pages with better and high compatibility with the vast variety of search engine crawlers.

Renowned Websites developed using React –

Facebook, Cloudflare, Airbnb, Dropbox, GitHub, Instagram, Netflix, PayPal, Twitter and Uber.

 

2. Vue Js 

Vue JS development company

 

Vue JS Development is another open-source front-end JavaScript framework, which is extremely lightweight and used to design highly creative and interactive UI and high-performance web and mobile applications. It was launched in 2014 and since then it has been immensely popular in the market for its amazing features and capabilities. It provides the advantages of both Angular and React, where it is a full-fledged JavaScript framework like Angular, at the same time offers the capability to manage the view layer, just like React.

Features of Vue.js

Extremely simple and lightweight:

Vue.js is extremely simple as far as its design and Application Programming Interface is concerned. On top of that, it has a surprising small size (approx. 20 Kilobytes) which lighter than all its rivals. It is so simple that a developer can build a simple web or mobile application in a few hours.

In-Built MVC :

It has an out of the box Model View and Controller design pattern, that helps developers to configure it quite easily unlike its rivals.

Data Binding:

This feature of Vue helps Developers to assign values to web component attributes, assign classes, and change the style.

Cascading Style Sheets Transitions:

Vue offers multiple methods to apply CSS transitions to HTML elements. It also has an additional capability of implementing animations to several web components.

HTML Template:

Vue.js offers HTML templates which help in binding the Document Object Model with the Vue.js instance data. It helps developers to use the template of the render functions to perform rendering function.

Faster Integration capabilities:

Vue offers an extremely fast integration capability and it helps developers to integrate the newly developed web components into existing web applications without experiencing any integration issues.

Easy to learn:

Vue is extremely easy to learn for the developers, it doesn’t require to learn JSX or Typescript, as in other rival Frameworks.

Renowned Websites developed using Vue.js:

Adobe, Trivago, Zoom, BMW, Gitlab, Louis Vuitton, Nintendo, Pluralsight, Trustpilot, and Upwork.

 

3. Angular JS

Angular JS development company

Angular JS Development is another open-source framework developed by Google to program client-end web applications. It was launched in 2010 and since then it has attained universal acclaim for its unbelievable functionality and features. However, due to emergence of its rivals like React.js and Vue.js, Google has massively revamped it and launched Angular 1 in 2016. It was transitioned to the component-based architecture from its earlier Model-View-Whatever architecture. The revamped Angular once again established itself as a strong contender in the JavaScript contender market. Currently it is considered as most robust and secure JavaScript frameworks used for designing enterprise level highly scalable applications.

Features of Angular.js

Innovative Code Generation capabilities:

Angular converts templates into code directly, which makes it highly optimized for JavaScript virtual machines. It also offers native support to Out of The Box caching and several other optimization features that ensure blazing fast code execution and server performance.

Code Splitting:

Angular has the capability to load only that code to render which has been requested by the end user. It implements automatic code-splitting, which ensures the quick loading of applications and web pages developed via Angular.

Seamless Third-party integrations:

It has a massive collection of third-party integrations tools, which enhance the capability of an Application developer to integrate 3rd Party tools and features to improve the quality of an application.

Support for Desktop based application:

This is one of the biggest advantages of Angular. It offers flexibility use common Angular methods to develop Desktop applications across multiple platforms and it also has an unmatched ability to access native Operating System Application Programming Interfaces.

Transitions and Animation:

Angular supports creation of high-performance, immersive transition effects and animation with very little code via it’s wonderful application programming interface.

Global Community Support:

This is one area where Angular is way ahead of its rivals. It enjoys massive support of Google along with a constant contribution from global developer community. Angular has unarguably the largest documentation along with a massive library contains vast number of resources, which comes handy to the Application Developers.

Renowned Websites developed using Angular.js:

Google, IBM, Deutsche Bank, Freelancer, Forbes, IBM, Microsoft Office, Upwork, Walmart, Xbox and YouTube.

 

4. Preact JS

Preact JS development company

 

Just like React, this is a library, instead of a full-fledged framework. As far as size is concerned, it is hardly 3kb in size, but it still offers its functions. It is also a product of Google, with addition and removal of few functionalities of React. It offers a component-based mechanism along with Virtual Dom and at the same time it is compatible with React. It can even use React packages without compromising on speed, performance, and leaner size. In instances where full potential of React isn’t necessary, most developers even use React during development and switch to Preact for production. Many major companies like Tencent, Uber, and Lyft are using Preact.

Features of Preact.js

High Efficiency:

If it comes to Memory usage, then Preact wins hands down as it had optimized the functions in such a way that its garbage collector put less effort.

Compatibility with other Frameworks:

As discussed earlier, Preact uses the same ES6 API as React. This means the developers can easily switch to Preact from React in an existing project during production.

Ultra-Small Size:

Preact.js has an ultra-small size of just 3kb and it has a unique distinction of being the smallest library or framework ever existed. However, when it comes to performance, it surprises with its unbelievable rendering abilities.

Powerful Command-line interface:

It offers a powerful command-line interface tool, which helps developers to create and manage the projects without any hassles.

Link State module:

Preact has a distinct ability to optimize the state changes, which his known as Link State module. It returns a handle function when passed in an event updates component state change automatically.

Renowned Websites developed using Angular:

Dailymotion, Dominos, Financial Times, Housing.com, Pepsi, Rocket Chat, Tencent and Treebo.

 

5. Ember JS

 

It’s an open-source JavaScript framework, that is used to create single web page applications along with highly scalable enterprise-level applications. It follows the philosophy of Model-View-View-Model architecture. Ember equipped with a state of the art CLI tool, which is extremely powerful and offers additional capabilities to the developers.

Ember JS development is one of the matured and aged JavaScript frameworks if we compare with the recent rivals. It enjoys a loyal support from its developer communities.

Features of Ember.js

Powerful Ember Command-line interface:

It’s one of its own kind of command-line interface, which helps developers to create and manage the projects, creating several components and controllers using automation. It also offers support to install and integrate 3rd party dependencies.

Backward Compatibility with previous versions:

It offers backward compatibility with previous version, another big feature that helps developers a lot.

Simple Application programming interface:

Ember offers one of the simplest mechanisms to work seamlessly with different application programming interfaces.

Convention over Configuration Philosophy:

Ember works on the philosophy of “ Convention over Configuration” , which ensures that Developers have not to think about any configuration in most cases, and they can work on coding and develop the web application.

Massive Documentation and Community support:

It enjoy the availability of huge documentation and tutorials ,which can help a novice to get started easily.

Inbuilt Inspector Tool:

It is equipped with an Inspector tool extension for different browsers, which enables real-time monitoring and modification of applications.

2 Way Data Binding:

Ember offers Bi-directional data binding.

Renowned Websites developed using Ember:

LinkedIn, Netflix, TED, Microsoft, Skylight, Square, Yahoo, Twitch and Zendesk.

 

Back End JavaScript Frameworks

1. Express JS

Express JS development company

It is an open-source JavaScript backend framework that works with Node.js used for developing the Application Programming Interfaces and web applications. It is known as a de facto JavaScript framework for developing the back end of any Web and Mobile application. It is an important constituent of MERN and MEAN stacks. it’s the most popular Node framework on GitHub, which proves its credentials.

Features of Express.js

Fast-paced development:

It has simplified and accelerated web application development using Node.js.

Integration with databases:

It offers end-to-end connectivity with all renowned databases like MySQL, Redis or MongoDB.

Community support:

It is in the market for almost 10 years and enjoys massive community support with thousands of contributors on GitHub.

Well written documentation:

Express has a unique distinction of having a wonderfully written documentation and other support resources.

Middleware Calls:

Express offers usage of multiple Middleware calls, which are used to execute code, making updates in objects or requests.

Powerful routing mechanism:

It offers a powerful routing mechanism, through which developers can define specific routes based on given URLs and HTTP functions.

Seamless Integration with Template engines:

Express enjoys a seamless integration capability with several template engines like EJS, HAML, and Pug.

Backward Compatibility:

It offers seamless backward compatibility with all the previous versions, which helps developers to work on all the versions without much of challenges.

Renowned Websites developed using Express.js:

Accenture, IBM, Nike, Myntra, Coursera, Fox, GoDaddy, Sony PlayStation, Twitter and Yandex.

 

2. Next JS

Next JS development company

 

It is an end-to-end server-end rendering framework which derives its origin from React. It is based on the philosophy of “Build once, runs everywhere”, which gives it an ability to develop universal applications, which can be operated on Mobile, Desktop or on Web. It also offers static generators.

Features of Next JS

Automatic code splitting:

It breaks down the application code into small bundles, which could be loaded separately based on the requirement, without load the entire JavaScript code. This capability enables it to deliver faster results.

Pre-fetching:

It’s a complementing feature of Code Splitting, as this allows the small JavaScript code bundles to loaded in the background, which could be executed if the requirement arises.

Hot-code Reloading:

Whenever Next.js detect any changes, it immediately reloads the page.

Highly SEO friendly:

Next.js with its server-side rendering abilities, offers a wonderful end-to-end SEO integration and performance. It allows creating the dynamic meta tags and put them in the head section, which helps in SEO optimization.

Exceptional Server-Side Rendering:

It offers out of the box Server-side-rendering, which helps it delivering blazing-fast performance, as it is independent of the client’s browser to load JavaScript to make content visible. It starts rendering the HTML from the server, even before the availability of JavaScript code from the client’s browser. Hence, we get the initial render results while the code is being loaded in the background, this offers a huge advantage to the developers.

Universal Deploy capabilities:

This is an extremely handy feature, as it allows developed to build small static websites and huge enterprise level applications at the same time. It also supports development of web applications, desktop apps, mobile apps and progressive web applications too.

Renowned Websites developed using Next.js:

Binance, Coinbase, GitHub, Docker, Netflix, Starbucks, Tencent, Twitch and Uber.

 

3. Gatsby JS

Gatsby development company

 

It was launched in 2015, and it is not known for performing server-end rendering. It rather generates HTML based content at the client’s end, which helps it executing the code at a faster rate. It also offers strong security features and seamless SEO performance. It comes with multiple plugins that help developers to add enhanced functionalities in the project.

Features of Gatsby JS

Enhanced Security:

It offers strong and implicit security features, that is independent of server or database.

Supports Progressive Web App Out-of-the-box:

It offers an out of the box support for Progressive Web applications, it can convert any website into full-fledged Progressive Web App, which can provide an amazing experience to the end user.

Supports Multiple Data sources:

This is one of the most important features of Gatsby, it offers capability to support multiple data sources like Drupal, Trello, WordPress, Netlify, Contentful, and Stripe etc.

Fast Performance:

It compiles and optimize the code using the pre-fetching and lazy loading mechanism and, in the process, it ensures high level of performance of website and the applications.

SEO Friendly:

Gatsby generates Static content, which is quite easily readable by most of the Search engine crawlers, it also offers no hindrance like its rivals, which makes it highly SEO friendly framework.

Availability of Plugins:

Gatsby enjoys availability of multiple plugins, which provide developers an additional ability to use them to perform specific tasks like adding google analytics, Image optimization, caching or even creating sitemaps. This feature makes work of developers very easy and they can add functionalities without writing additional codes.

Renowned Websites developed using Gatsby:

Braun, Airbnb, Fabric, Flamingo, Nike, PayPal, Hopper, React and Snapkit.

 

JavaScript Testing Frameworks

1. Jest

Jest development company

 

Jest is considered as the best JavaScript testing framework ‘Stateofjs survey’. Facebook developed it and they have put more focus on making it simple and highly effective. Developers use Jest along with Selenium to integrate JavaScript automated testing. It also offers strong cross-browser support for automated browser testing.

Features of Jest

Fast and Reliable:

It assigns a unique global state for all the tests and thus it ensures running multiple tests in parallel. It always runs the previously failed tests first, which helps developers to mitigate any earlier errors. It also offers an ability to re-organizes runs based on the time taken by the test files. These features make it fast and reliable testing framework.

Code Coverage Flag:

Jest offers code coverage capability by adding a simple flag ‘Coverage’. For this we don’t need any additional setup or configuration changes. It helps Jest to collect code coverage information from entire projects, even from the untested files. Isn’t this exciting?

Quick and Correct results:

Jest ensures correctness of any JavaScript codebase. It also allows developers to write tests with easy to use and feature rich Application programming interfaces, which returns the results so quickly.

Renowned Websites developed using Jest:

Bla Bla Car, Airbnb, Facebook, Instagram, Spotify, Intuit, Stack, The New York Times and Twitter.

 

2. Mocha

Mocha development company

 

Mocha is another popular JavaScript testing framework, which runs on node.js and known for its ability to perform asynchronous testing. It offers huge number of features to the developers and testers, and it runs the tests in a serial fashion, and it returns accurate and flexible reporting to the end user. It supports both Mocha both Test Driven Development and Behavior Driven Development environments for JavaScript automated testing.

Features of Mocha

Multiple installation methods:

Mocha JS could be installed in multiple ways per project’s needs. It could be installed either locally or globally by running simple commands. Even at Client’s end Mocha can be installed by running specific commands.

Supports Asynchronous testing:

It supports asynchronous testing and has features to make it easy to perform asynchronous testing for the code. Testers must invoke the callback once the test if completed, and synchronous testing could be enhanced by omitting the callback. It also offers a capability of writing an asynchronous code using async/await command.

TDD and BDD support:

Unlike its rivals, the Mocha supports both Mocha both Test Driven Development and Behavior Driven Development environments.

It runs in Web Browser:

This is the biggest strength of Mocha; it is highly compatible with all major web browsers. Hence, Testers can run Mocha on every web browser available in the market.

Renowned Websites developed using Mocha:

Algolia, Clay, Accenture, Codefirst, Coursera, Principal, Triple Byte, Typeform, Webflow and Yahoo.

 

Conclusion

As we have seen, there are multiple Frontend, Backend and Testing JavaScript frameworks available in the market, every Framework has some distinct features which can cater Application development requirements. We hope this article will help you to have a better understanding of all the popular JavaScript Frameworks. We are in opinion that we must assess and chose and integrate the suitable tools with your programs to increase efficiency, decrease cost, save time and efforts. We must make the choice of an appropriate JavaScript framework based on the Organization and Project’s requirements, and we are hopeful that this article will help you make the wise decision.

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